Period 7 - Anatomy and Physiology - Skin Disorders Research

Kyssandra Perkowski
Herpes Simplex
Passing water bottles all around, kissing each other upside down when you really get around town…
Ahh watch out You just got herpes and that’s what this is all about

How do I get Herpes?Many people receive herpes by coming in close contact to family members and friends. This disease can be transmitted through kissing, sharing utensils at meals, or even sharing towels. This infection causes cold sores that are commonly found on the lips, mouth, nose, chin or cheeks. Sometimes you don’t notice symptoms before the bumps begin to appear.
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The symptoms vary from person to person as well as depending on which specific type you inquire.
For Genital Herpes – 1 to 2 weeks after being sexually exposed to the virus symptoms can begin to show. The first signs are a “tingly” feeling in affected areas as well as, small red bumps that turn into blisters.
For Oral herpes
-blisters as well as increase amount of saliva and bad breath
- and rarely difficulty swallowing, chills, hearing loss, and muscle pain.

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What are the complications and treatments?
Herpes averagely appear four times a year and there is no cure, only medications.
There are many vaccines that help herpes; although, not one can fully cure it. The treatments only help decrease the breakouts.
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Statistics and Facts

  • One out of five of the total adolescent and adult population is infected with genital herpes.
  • Infection is more common in women (approximately one out of four women) than in men (almost one out of five).
  • About 80 percent of American adults have oral herpes (cold sores).
  • Most people don’t even realize they have Herpes; however, once they receive it, the disease never goes away.
  • Blood tests may help determine if you have genital herpes.
  • Any type of skin to skin contact can cause herpes to pass and spread to others

Works Cited

The Faces of Rosacea

J'onn Wodatch

What? Rosacea is a chronic condition characterized by redness in the face. The redness is sometiexternal image ibr_rosacea13.jpgmes accompanied by pimples. It is for the most part a harmless disorder. The only danger it poses is if it affects the eyes.
Who? The main recipients of this disorder are Caucasians mainly residing in the northwestern European region. Rosacea affects both genders however is close to three times as common in females than males.
Symptoms? Some symptoms include redness on the face, pimples, red gritty eyes, burning and stinging sensations and occasionally a round red nose. external image Ocular-Rosacea-Blurry-Red-Itchy_3.jpg
Cause? The main cause of Rosacea has been discovered to be an excess amount of peptide cathelicidin and stratum corneum triptic enzymes (SCTE’s). Another cause has been directed to small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Forexternal image rosacea.jpg the most part, there are many factors that cause Rosacea, anywhere from alcohol consumption to hot weather.
Treatment/Cure? Treatment for Rosacea varies based on the severity of the disorder. Mild cases usually are just left alone and covered up with basic cosmetics. The main treatments for Rosacea cases are topical and oral antibiotic agents (creams and pills). There is no true “cure” for Rosacea, just treatments to dissipate the redness from the skin.
Statistics? 1 in 20 people are afflicted with Rosacea (approx. 13 million) in the USA
Did you know? Rosacea is more common in females texternal image acne-rosacea-300x243.jpghan in males. Rosacea is ranked 5th among diagnosed skin disorders. Rosacea of the eye can result in blurred vision, tearing/infection of the eyelids and a scratchy feeling in and around the eye.

Skin Disorder - Fighting the Fiend, Folliculitus

Aimie Angeletti

· is inflammation within one or more hair follicles.
· It can occur anywhere on the skin.
Causes and Risks
Is caused when àexternal image folliculitis.jpg
· when hair follicles are damaged by friction from clothing, blockage of the follicle, or shaving.
· Can be infected with the bacteria staph.
Can develop with:

· rashes, redness, itching, and pimples or pustules near hair folliclesexternal image folliculitis_pictures_staph_folliculitis.jpg
· may be located in the neck, groin, or genital area.
· Pimples may have crusty surface
· Hot compresses help with drainage of affected follicles
· Oral antibiotics(dicloxacillin), or topical antibiotics applied to skin (mupirocin)
  • Folliculitis can return
  • Infection may spread to other body areas
  • Pustules/pimples can be painfulexternal image 100_0160.jpg
· Affects more than 10-20% of people at some point in their lives.

Interesting Facts:
· May be found anywhere on the surface of the skin; primarily in warm and moist areas.
· First starts as red itchy bumps and may begin to look like pimples after.
· Anyone can get Folliculitus.
· You can get Folliculitus from hot tubs or whirlpools since the pores of your skin are open.external image furuncle1.JPG

Works Cited:

Ringwormexternal image phototake_ringworm_lesion.jpg

Malori Rogers
Ringworm is a contagious infection caused by the fungus, Trichophyton
It affects the scalp, body, feet, and nails

How You Get The Disorder:
1. Direct skin to skin contact with an infected person or animal
2. Indirect skin to skin contact with someone who has touched an infected person or animal
3. Contact with soil (rarest)
On Scalp
- starts with a small pimple that becomes larger
- creates a scaly patch of baldness in the area because the infected hairs fall of from becoming to brittle
- yellowish crusty areas
On Bodyexternal image ringworm.jpg
- flat, round patch on any part of the body except the scalp and foot
- the patch expands
- the center of the patch clears and creates a ring
- there could be more than one patch
- it can sometimes be itchy
On Foot
- also called Athlete’s foot
- scaling or cracking of the skin
On Nails
- nails become brittle
- nails become thicker and discolored
- if ringworm is not treated the infection will not go away
- tablet or liquid form fungus-killing medicine taken by mouth
- a cream that is put on the infected areaexternal image dermnet_photo_of_ringworm_on_hand.jpg
- could be completely cured in a week
- 70% of the population

Other Information
- It has nothing to do with worms. The only reason it is called ringworm is because the infected area on the body may appear as a ring.
- The symptoms of the disorder on the scalp appear about 10 to 14 days after contact with a person or animal that is infected with ringworm
- The symptoms of the disorder on the skin appear about 4 to 10 days after contact with a person or animal that is infected with ringworm
- Tinea is the formal name for ringworm

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Works Cited
"How Many People Have Ringworm?." Athletes Foot Cure. N.p., 31 Dec 2008. Web. 27 Oct 2010. <>.

"Medicine: Ringworm." TIME. N.p., 13 Jul 1931 . Web. 27 Oct 2010. <,9171,742037,00.html>.

"Ringworm." Directors of Health Promotion and Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct 2010. <>.

Nicole Boisvert
Ingrown Toenail is a condition where the nail grows into or pushes against the skin, causing irritaion.external image ingrown_toenail.jpg
Toenails That Will Make You Pale
Causes: wearing tight shoes, previous fungal infections, improper toenail trimming, an injury on or around the nail, genetics, rounded toenails, poor hygiene.
Symptoms: Rexternal image ingrown-toenail-diabetic-diabetes.pngedness, pain, swelling, warm to the touch,
Complications: Ingrown toenails can develop into an infection with drainage, a fever, worsening pain, color changes around infection, and scaring of the nail fold and skin.
Treatment: wash the area twice a day with soap and water, wear open shoes, elevate the nail with gauze, take pain reliever medication for pain. Surgery is sometimes used to remove a portion or all of the nail.
Statistics: About 26 in 1000 people in the U.S. have trouble with ingrown toenails. Male adults between the ages of 20 and 30 are most likely to have an ingrown toenail.
Facts: People who are obese or have lung cancer are most likely to have ingrown toenails. It is possible to get ingrown fingernails. The Big toes is mostly affected out of all of the toes.

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external image Ingrown_toenails.gif external image ingrown%20toenail.jpg

Work Cited
"Ingrown Toenail ." emedicinehealth. WebMD Inc., 2010. Web. 27 Oct 2010. <>.
"Ingrown Toenail." MedicineNet Inc, 2010. Web. 27 Oct 2010. <

Skin Disorder -



Small red to brown bumps that are the result from accumulation of collagen which is the protein made by cells (fibroblasts) that populate the soft tissue under the skin


· Round bumps
· Red to brown color
· Size may vary from 5mm to 10mm
· Bleeds when nicked
· Can be anywhere on the body, but usually on the lower part of the legsexternal image Dermatofibroma-MM.jpg


· The exact cause is still not known


· No symptoms
· Can cause itchiness and pain when pressed
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· The bumps are harmless
· They do not lead to cancer


· Does not need any treatment, until it causes discomfort (bothersome or enlarged)
· Can be surgically removed, but a scar is left
· Can be removed with a scalpel
· External procedures like cryosurgery, which can use liquid nitrogen to treat the bump


· More common in women then men
· Usually appears in young adulthood

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· Made up of scar tissue and blood vessels

· They do not go away on their own
· Can change color over time

Works Cited:

Kulkarni, By Mayuri. "Dermatofibroma: Symptoms and Treatment." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.

"Dermatofibromas: Noncancerous Skin Growths: Merck Manual Home Edition." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most Important Condition Is the Human One. 2009. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.

Skin Disorder - By Lauren Pocius
Lichen Planus – An Annoying Little Disease
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Description – a common inflammatory disease of the skin and mouth. On a person’s skin, one will see shiny, flat-topped bumps, which are of a reddish-purple color that produce a rash.
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Cause - The cause of Lichen Planus is unknown, but there are several theories that help clarify why people get this disease. For example, dermatologists believe that the white blood cells in a person’s body begin to attack the normal parts of the skin, producing the rash. Other doctors think that this disease can result from allergic reactions to medications for high blood pressure, heart disease, and arthritis.
Symptoms - Symptoms vary depending on where the disease is on a person’s body. Symptoms on the skin include purplish bumps that mostly appear near the wrists or ankles, blistery or scabby bumps, and an extremely itchy rash. Symptoms on the mouth include sores inside mouth that cause pain or burning, and white lines or dots that appear on the inside of the cheeks. Symptoms on the genitals include itching and purplish skin. Another area that a person might see this disease is on the scalp and symptoms include temporary hair loss, and scaring. Also, symptoms on the nails include thinning of nails and temporary or permanent loss of nail.
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Treatments – There is no known cure for Lichen Planus, but there are some treatments that help with the itching and appearance of rash. The two most common treatments are ointments and anti-inflammatory drugs. This disease can take from anywhere to two weeks to two years to remove. However, because every case of Lichen Planus is different, a person must follow the advice of their dermatologists.
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Complications – Because Lichen Planus is a common skin disease, there are very few complications that can occur. Complications that due arise are mainly in very serve cases of this disease. Complications that can occur is skin or oral cancer.
Statistics – Lichen Plan is seen in about 0.5 percent of the population.
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Interesting Facts It is impossible to catch Lichen Planus from another person or give it to another person. The name "lichen" refers to the lichen plant which grows on rocks or trees, and "planus" means flat.About 1 in 5 people who have the disease once will have a second attack.

Work Cited
"Lichen Planus: A Common Skin Rash in Autoimmune Disorders." Online Magazine and Writers' Network. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Lichen Planus." American Academy of Dermatology. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Lichen Planus: Symptoms -" Mayo Clinic Medical Information and Tools for Healthy Living - Web. 27 Oct. 2010.

Skin Disorder -
Daniel Vazquez
Miasmic Melasmaexternal image melasma.jpg

Causes of Disorder-

The cause of melasma is generally unknown. It is thought that pregnancy, birth control pills, cosmetics, hormone therapy, drugs that make the skin more susceptible to light damage, anti-seizure medication, and sun exposure often trigger the melasmic symptoms to take place. The most widely accepted theory of what causes melasma is that family history influences the odd that one will get melasma. Melasma is most common during pregnancy and sun exposure. Because of this it is often referred to as the mask of pregnancy. Often referred to as Chloasma as well, Melasma can be caused by exposure to the sun. the UV rays stimulate melanocytes, leaving a patch of coloration behind. People with darker skin have more active melanocytes originally so they produce more pigment.

Symptoms of Disorder- Darker pigmentation of skin, dark blotches usually on face, forehead, shoulder, upper arms, but can be generally anywhere where sun habitually reaches.external image melasma.jpg
Complications of Disorder- For people who are trying to treat their melasma, doctors recommend wearing sunscreen because, even on cloudy days, UV rays can penetrate in to the skin. Along with wearing sunscreen it is recommended that those affected my melasma do not wear cosmetics that will aggravate or worsen the melasma. Also it is beneficial to see a dermatologist, for it will give a patient the most successful outcome.
Treatments of Disorder - Treatments include: wearing sunscreen, and neglecting cosmetics. Many varieties of creams or laser surgeries aid in removal of melasma. But it is always beneficial to see a dermatologist as well.
Interesting Information -
· Most common in Latino men and women
· Affected by quality of life
· Often times is a result of hormone imbalances
· Melasma is more common in women than men
· Melasma is not contagious
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Melasma Statistics- Melasma most commonly affects women ages 20-40. It also affects darker skin tones more often than fair or lighter skin tones.

Works Cited

Skin Disorder -
Mathew Mezzei
Acne Vulgaris

Vulgar Vulgaris
external image acne_vulgaris.jpg

Description of Manifestation: Acne Vulgaris is when lesions occur due to a change in the sebaceous glands. They contain sebaceous glands, a substance called sebum, and a hair follicle. Blockage in follicles or bacteria in pores can cause the change. When oil or dead skin cells build up and clog these glands, breakouts or lesions are likely to appear. It usually is located on the back, face, and upper portion of the chest. A common cause of acne vulgaris is hormone fluctuations, which is why puberty increases the chances of acne since it is a change in hormones. Genetics has also been shown to play a role
Symptoms/Complications: Pimples, whiteheads, blackheads, or zits are symptoms/Physical or psychological scarring can be complications of acne vulgaris.
Treatments: One should keep their skin oil free and clean on a daily basis to prevent acne vulgaris. Hormone fluctuations are the leading cause, so this is probably the best way to prevent severe breakouts. Skin should be thoroughly washed at least twice daily with products that will not cause pores to clog. Using products with alpha hydroxyl acid and salicylic acid will also help significantly to treat and control acne vulgaris. Benzoyl Peroxide has been proven to help, but it also can have the side effect of drying your skin. Antibiotics and other medications can help control this disorder, whether it is over the counter or prescription. external image acne-vulgaris-pic.jpg
Statistics: Over 85% of population have acne at some point of their lives
Other pieces of Information:
1. The apparent fact that acne vulgaris is caused by eating too much greasy food or chocolate is false. These types of foods will not cause breakouts, but they will definitely aid in the production of oily skin.
2. This disorder can be Genetic
3. Although hygiene and regular cleansing is vital to prevent the spread of infection - it is is usually not caused by lack of hygiene.
4. Modern science does not support the idea that stress can lead to acne, but it is true that stress aggravates skin problems and flare-ups happen when a person is under extra stress.
Works Cited:

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Skin Disorder -Stephanie Langan
Psoriasis-Not just another spot on your skin
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- Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune disease on the skin.
-This disorder occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells.
- Genetic Predisposition can also cause Psoriasis.
- Psoriasis commonly affects the skin of the scalp, elbows, and knees.
- This disorder has many different appearances such as small flattened bumps, large thick plaques of raised skin, red patches, and pink mildly dry skin that creates big flakes.
- On nails, it can look like small white spots or large yellowish-brown separations on the nail bed.
-It may also look like severe dandruff on the scalp.
- There are five types of Psoriasis. They are plaque, gluttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic.
-Plaque is the most common type which causes red, raised patches or lesions covered with a silvery white buildup of dead skin cells, called scale.

-Treatments vary on the person and the severity of the disorder.
-For a mild disorder, about 10% of the body, topical creams (Dovonex), lotions (Salex, AmLactin, or Lac-Hydrin lotions are used), or sprays are usually effective. Also, an injection of steroids into an area of plaque can help as well.
- For moderate to severe cases of Psoriasis, 20% or more of the body, pills, light treatments (calcipotriene), or injections may be necessary.
-However, the risks of every type of medication can be different for everyone and must be put into consideration. Some people may not be bothered by this skin disorder, but others may get upset with even small patches of psoriasis. Therefore, these people may want more treatment. Doctors will usually use “rotational” therapy where different treatments are used on and off for effective results and minimize side effects.
- Bath salts or bathing in high salt concentration can also help.

-7.5 Americans have Psoriasis (about 2.2% of the population)
-125 million people worldwide (about 2-3% of the total population)
-A child with one parent with psoriasis has a 10% chance of developing psoriasis. A child with two parents with psoriasis has a 50% chance of developing this disorder.
-About 1 in 3 people with psoriasis have a relative with the skin disorder.
- People with psoriasis are 2.7 times more likely to develop depression and younger patients (ages 40 and younger) are 4.5 times more likely to develop depression.
Additional Information:
-This disorder can occur on any body part and is associated with serious health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression.
-It is not contagious.
- There is a support network created by the National Psoriasis Foundation. This helps people who suffer from psoriasis talk about treatments and give emotional support. The effects were on socializing, finding a partner, and establishing a career.
external image psoriasis-plaques.jpgpsoriasis_1.jpgpsoriasis-4.jpgpsoriasis_2.jpg

Works Cited:

Skin Disorders Project
By: Jenna Massaro
external image phototake_hives_urticaria_skin_rash.jpg

Hives are a rash or an outbreak of swollen red bumps that suddenly appear on the skin. They are usually triggered by allergies. The rash is generally harmless; however, the bumps are very itchy.
The most common causes of Hives are allergies to medications (penicillin, antibiotics, etc.), foods (shellfish, nuts), pollen, cat dander, or insect bites (bees/wasps) or viral infections.

Symptoms include red raised welts/bumps on the skin usually found in clusters, itching, and variations in size of welts. The welts generally last for 24 hours and alter their shape rapidly. Also, welts may appear in some places, then disappear, and reappear again in different areas. If the hives are caused by a viral infection, the infected individual may have a sore throat, runny nose, or cough as well.external image Hives-Urticaria.jpg

Aside from avoiding known allergens, treatments include the use of antihistamines which can be prescribed by dermatologists or your doctor. Another treatment is the use of corticosteroids—usually only if the antihistamines fail to provide relief. Corticosteroids are used to decrease swelling. In extreme cases (life or death scenario) injections of epinephrine (hormone resembling adrenaline) are given. There are other measures to be taken in order to ease the symptoms. These include avoiding heat, staying away from alcohol, avoiding scratching, applying cool compresses to the affected areas, and wearing loose clothes to avoid aggravating the rash.

external image hivespictures.jpgComplications:
Complications include dizziness, wheezing, tightness in chest, difficulties breathing, and swelling of the lips, face, and tongue. If any of these symptoms occur a doctor should be contacted immediately.

Around 15-20% of people will be affected by hives at some point throughout their lifetime. Hives can affect anyone; Age and race don’t seem to play a big part in determining who gets hives. However, the condition is greatly seen in people in their 30’s.
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Interesting Facts:
1. It is more common for an individual to be exposed to something two or more times before the hives are actually triggered as opposed to something new causing them.
2. An interesting type of hives is known as dermographism. It is triggered when the skin is scratched, and shortly after it is scratched, hives appear along the scratch line.
3. Hives aren’t seen as chronic until they have lasted for at least six weeks; chronic hives are found only about 20% of the time.

Works Cited:

Skin Disorder -
Chicken Pox

What’s red and itchy and all over you? It’s the chicken pox, not the flu.

By: Emma Hawthorn

Manifestation: The illness is most contagious 3 days before the rash appears. The actual disease is cause by the varicella-zoster virus. If someone with the disease sneezes, coughs, or shares food or drinks with you, you can get the illness.

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Small red irritated bumps or blisters that itch and look like bug bites. They start off filled with liquid, then burst, then scab. Possible fever, abdominal pain, sore throat, headache, or sick feeling 2 or 3 days before the rash.

Some children and adults with weaker immune systems can experience bacterial infections with the skin, lungs, bones, joints, and the brain. Also people with regular immune systems can sometimes get a skin infection near the blisters.

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Most people let the illness run it’s one week course. There isn’t a cure, but if the person picks and scratches at the blisters and they become infected then a doctor will prescribe an antibiotic. If there are complications a doctor will prescribe acyclovir, but only under extreme measures because there are many side effects. But if you had a vaccine you are immune.

4 million persons per year in the United States get chicken pox.

Interesting Facts:
Once you have chicken pox once you normally don’t have it again.
Chicken pox was thought to be the same thing as smallpox until late 19th century.
It is called chicken pox because the size of the bumps is about the size of chickpeas and it is most common in kids and kids were called chickens.

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Works Cited:

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Skin Disorder -

Emily Viola


“Resist the Itch!”

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Contracting Poison
  • Touching poison ivy
  • Touching something that has poison ivy
  • Inhaling the smoke of poison ivy
Symptoms of Poison ivy:
  • Begins as small, red bump
  • Grows as the oil spreads on the skin
  • Scratching transfers the oils, as well as exacerbating the condition
  • Blisters filled with fluid may also be present, which is the body’s natural reaction to the poison
external image 2607_PoisonIvy.jpg
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Complications of Poison Ivy:
  • By scratching, the blisters may open then making them prone to infection
  • This infection would then need a secondary treatment of antibiotic to clear up the bacterial infection
  • After the blister is opened, it will scab to close itself which will eventually scar
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Treating Poison Ivy:
If possible, poison ivy should be avoided by knowing what it looks like in its natural leafy forms
However, if contact is made the following steps will make the rash less severe

1. Cleanse the affected areas with rubbing alcohol to remove the surface oils
2. Wash with cold water (because hot water will open the pores, allowing the remaining oil to seep out and spread to other body parts)
3. Take a shower, using warm water and soap
4. Resist itching, as it will worsen the condition
5. Put on latex gloves and use wash everything you were wearing with rubbing alcohol and water (shoes, pants, shirt, jacket, hat, etc)

6. Over the counter creams and lotions may be used to calm the burning sensations caused by the rash

  • As many as 70-80% of people will get a reaction from as little as 2 micrograms (one millionth of a tablespoon) of urushiol , the oil causing poison ivy
  • 50 million people affected annually by poison oak, sumac or ivy annually in the United States
  • 10-15% of people in the United States appear to be intolerant to the poison ivy rash
  • 35% of people in the United States will have no reaction to urushiol, but will react to very high levels
Interesting Facts:
1. Inhaling the smoke of burning poison ivy can be lethal and usually leads to death because it will affect the airways
2. Poison ivy rashes are not contagious, the oil that may be on them can be, but never the rash itself

3. Being sensitive to poison ivy is genetic
1. "Poison Ivy Rash: Complications -" Mayo Clinic Medical Information and Tools for Healthy Living - Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
2. Poison Ivy. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>
3. "Who Is Affected by Poison Ivy, Oak, or Sumac Rash? - Revolution Health." Revolution Health - Start Your Revolution - Revolution Health. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
4. Iannelli, By Vincent. "Poison Ivy Myths and Facts." About Pediatrics - Pediatric Parenting and Medical Advice. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.

Stop that Cyst
Tayler Hazelwood

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTYGDrqD8IGq2uzRfB12UY_iEt-enAw0pE9WJNQ2j0DTrjVJ6A&t=1&usg=__TtOphTXm7IYAMufs9b_DHs8KDvc=
Cysts are slow growing, non-cancerous, closed pockets of tissue that are filled with some sort of fluid or material.

external image cyst.jpgCauses:
Cysts usually occur due to infections, specifically when the sebaceous gland becomes clogged.

There are no symptoms of cysts other than the appearance of the cyst itself. Occasionally pain may occur. Cysts vary, and therefore so do the treatments. Most cysts are painless. Some cysts may even go away on their own. If cysts do not go away on their own then they may need to be drained or injected with cortisone. The cortisone shot causes them to shrink. If a person has a reoccurring cyst it is sometimes necessary to have them removed surgically.

If a cyst is not treated and continues to grow then it may cause torsion, when the cyst begins to twist and cause pain. It then needs to be removed.

Other Things to Know:
The outside wall of a cyst is called the capsule.
Cysts can ultimately appear anywhere
Cysts in the brain and nasal passages are rare but are possible.external image sebaceouscyst.jpg
Cysts in the breast occur between 20% - 50% of fertile women.

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 width="160" height="120" align="left"]]

Skin Disorder -

Works Cited :

Skin Disorder - Shayne O'Brien

Skin Disorder -

A Mast Take Over
By Kelly Read

Mastocytosis is a rare disorder in children and adults that is caused by presence of too many mast cells or mastocyte. The two main types of mastocytosis are cutaneous mastocytosis and systemic mastocytosis.

  • Cutaneous mastocytosis usually only affect children and the excessive mast cells gather in the skin. Three fourths of the cases are developed in children between one and four. An estimated 1 in every 1,000 visits to the dermatologist is due to cutaneous mastocytosis.
  • Systemic mastocytosis usually only affects adults and the excess mast cells gather in the body tissue, organs and bones. An estimated 1 in every 150,000 people in England have systemic mastocytosis.
Mast cells located in tissues contain small structures filled with histamine and heparin.
Histamine, an organic nitrogen compound, is involved in immune responses. Histamine triggers an inflammatory response to protect the body from pathogens.
Heparin is a chemical that allow you blood to clot.
Mast cells are found in:
lymph nodes
internal organs (liver and spleen)
linings of the lungs, stomach, and intestines

The mast cells release chemicals that cause changes body function that leads to typical allergic responses such as itching, flushing, abdominal cramping, and even shock. When too many mast cell are produced in body, the additional chemicals can cause
•Skin lesions
•Abdominal discomfort
•Musculoskeletal pain
•Inflammation of the throat, ears, and nose

There is no cure for mastocytosis but treatment can help to stop the symptoms. Antihistamines are used to treat the allergies such as itching. Epinephrine helps by constricting blood vessels and opens airways to maintain circulation. Steroids and chemotherapy is used when mastocytosis is cancerous or associated with a blood disorder.

Interesting Facts:
•In clinical trials doctors are using stem cell transplants as a form of treatment.
• Animals can have mast cell tumors
•Mastocytosis is considered to be an “orphan disease” because it affects 2000,000 or fewer people in the United States.


Work Cited

Skin Disorder - Keep your feet dry!

By: Kendal Reed

Athletes Foot

having wet feet can lead to bacteria and fungi to settle on feet causing irritation.
places where this can happen

  • locker rooms
  • bathrooms
  • pools
  • etc.
however there are other sources from which athletes foot can occur namely being sweaty socks.
other ways are sharing clothing and even towels.

Signs and Symptoms

  • itchy foot
  • irritation and rash
  • peeling skin
  • blisters
  • inflamation

from person to person.
can spread to different parts of the body.

there are many treatment methods for dealing with athletes foot.

  1. Medication
  • topical medication like creams
  • some oral medications are available
2. Talcum powder is a simple but common way to fight the itch
keep feet dry as best as one can.
use foot powder in shoes.
wear shower shoes in locker rooms, etc.

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Works Cited

Skin Disorder - Candida! Not the yeast in BREAD, Be careful this kind will spread!//

By Zack Signore
Causes- Yeast infections can be caused by:
  • Side-effect of anti-biotics
  • dirty clothing
  • Used condoms
  • Unprotected sex
  • Certain chemicals
  • Vaginal itching
  • painful sexual intercourse
  • whitish discharge

you can get yeast infections from unprotected sex

Treatment- You can treat many forms of candida with antibiotics

Prevention- Always be clean, take showers regularly, don't wear dirty clothes
external image 037FluconazoleResistantCandida.pngexternal image blackhairytongue1040620.jpg

external image PHIL_1217_lores.jpg
external image candida1.jpg

Work Cited

Skin Disorder - Pat Donovan

Lupus of the Skin


The exact cause of lupus is unknown. It is likely to be due to a combination of factors. For example, a person's genetic make-up and exposure to certain unknown trigger factors may provide the right environment in which lupus can develop.


Malar rash – a rash over the cheeks and nose, often in the shape of a butterfly

Discoid rash – a rash that appears as red, raised, disk-shaped patches Photosensitivity – a reaction to sun or light that causes a skin rash to appear or get worse

Oral ulcers – sores appearing in the mouth

Arthritis – joint pain and swelling of two or more joints in which the bones around the joints do not become destroyed

Serositis – inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleuritis) or inflammation of the lining around the heart that causes chest pain which is worse with deep breathing (pericarditis)

Kidney disorder – persistent protein or cellular casts in the urine

Neurological disorder – seizures or psychosis

Blood disorder – anemia (low red blood cell count), leukopenia (low white blood cell count), lymphopenia (low level of specific white blood cells), or thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)

Immunologic disorder – abnormal anti-double-stranded DNA or anti-Sm, positive antiphospholipid antibodies

Abnormal antinuclear antibody (ANA)


Lupus is not contagious, not even through sexual contact. You cannot "catch" lupus from someone or "give" lupus to someone.

In lupus, something goes wrong with your immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs ("foreign invaders," like the flu).

Autoimmune means your immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and your body’s healthy tissues ("auto" means "self") and creates autoantibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissue.


Avoiding the sun. If you must be in the sun, cover your arms and legs, wear a hat, and apply broad-spectrum sunscreen (covering both UVA and UVB rays) with a high sun protection factor (such as SPF 50) to protect your skin.

Applying corticosteroid cream for rashes.

Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s) and getting plenty of rest for mild joint or muscle pain and fever.

Taking antimalarial medications to treat fatigue, jointpain, skin rashes, and lung inflammation.

Taking low-dose corticosteroids if NSAIDs aren't effective in controlling your symptoms.


It is believed that 5 million people throughout the world have a form of lupus

Lupus strikes mostly women of childbearing age (15-44). However, men, children, and teenagers develop Lupus too.

Women of color are 2-3 times more likely to develop lupus.

People of all races and ethnic groups can develop lupus.

More than 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported annually across the country

Skin Disorder -

Skin Disorder -