Period 4 - Anatomy and Physiology - Skin Disorder Research=

Skin Disorder - Plantar Warts- Victoria Sperrazza

Plantar Warts


Non-cancerous skin growths on the soles of your feet caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). These often develop beneath the pressure points in the feet such as the heels and balls of the feet.

How?- Plantar warts are mainly caused by HPV which enters through the tiny cuts and breaks in the skin. HPV thrives in warm and moist areas. Walking barefoot in public areas can transfer HPV into one’s skin. It can also be transferred person to person by direct contact of the foot to someone else’s skin where there may be a cut.

- Small, fleshy, grainy bumps on soles of feet.
- Hard flat growths with rough surface
- Gray or brown lumps with 1 or more black pinpoints (clotted blood vessels)
- Bumps that interrupt normal lines and ridges in skin of feet
- Pain or tenderness when walking

Complications- Plantar warts are persistent. They spread. People should treat their plantar warts as quickly as possible. If they are left untreated, they can enlarge and spread and become extremely painful.

- Freezing
- Minor surgery
- Laser Surgery

Statistics- Plantar warts are common among children between the ages of 12 and 16. There are only about 10% of plantar wart cases each year.

- Avoid direct contact with warts.
- Keep feet clean and dry
- Don’t go barefoot in public places
- Don’t pick at warts
- Don’t use the same file, pumice stone or nail clipper as you use on your healthy skin and nails
- Wash your hands carefully

plantar-warts-feet.jpg warts.jpg,,tp12516,00.html

Skin Disorder - Chicken Pox- Maxx Frisco

Skin Disorder - Lupus of the Skin - Kaitlyn McNally

The Low-Down on Lupus

Kaitlyn McNally

Period 4

OverviewLupus is an autoimmune disease that causes the body to attack its own tissues instead of harmful toxins such as bacteria or viruses. Lupus of the skin occurs within the skin tissues and causes rashes, inflammation, weakness and pain.

Cause – The cause of lupus is still unclear. Some research suggests it is caused by a change in hormone levels, certain medications, and other triggers that affect the autoimmune system. People at higher risk are women between the age of 15 and 45, people who are black, and people with a family history of lupus.

SymptomsSymptoms of lupus of the skin include

- Rashes

- Pain

- Swelling

- Flaky skin

- Red or purple raised spots

- Sensitivity to light

- Butterfly Rash (over cheeks and bridge of nose)

ComplicationsComplications of lupus often occur in the kidney, heart, lungs, and other internal organs. It causes the distress of these tissues and must be immediately addressed.

Treatment Treatment plans for lupus are created to address a patient’s personal needs. No two cases of lupus are the same, and therefore the amount of medication prescribed and other activities differ from person to person. There is medication available to control the symptoms of lupus. Other important factors in treating this disease are stress reduction activities, proper nutrition, and exercise. mOst importantly, people with lupus must report any unusual symptoms, and keep in close contact with their physician.

Statistics At least 1.5 million Americans suffer from lupus

- 90% of people diagnosed with lupus are women

- 20% have lupus in the family

- 10 – 15% of people with lupus will die prematurely of symptoms

Types of Lupus
- Discoid lupus erythematosus – Causes a skin rash does not heal
- Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus – Causes sores on areas exposed to sun
- Drug-induced lupus – caused by medications
- Neonatal lupus – affects newborns

Fast Facts
- Certain races have greater risk of developing lupus
- Lupus patients are able to lead normal lives
- Lupus is treated by a rheumatologist
- Stress, drugs, and extreme sunlight are all triggers for lupus
- Famous performers Seal and Michael Jackson both suffered from lupus

Works Cited

"Lupus Health Center." N.p., n.d. Web. 25
Oct 2010. <>.
"Lupus and the Skin." Hospital for Special Surgery, n.d. Web. 25 Oct 2010. <>.

"Systemic Lupus."
Medical Powerpoint Presentations. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct 2010. < lupus- erythematosus.html>.

Skin Disorder - Acne Vulgaris - Emma Becroft

All the Secrets of Acne Vulgaris
Acne Vulgaris is a term used to describe an inflammatory skin disease. Hormonal changes cause an excess of oil in the skin which is mostly seen during puberty. The amount of time it takes for acne to completely disappear depends on the individual but it usually goes away by the end of the teenage years. Acne is not directly affected by the foods eaten but there are some relations. Eating chocolates and greasy food will not trigger breakouts but aid in the production of oily skin.
Pimples, whiteheads, and blackheads are all forms of acne and can appear on the face, neck, shoulders, or back. Another symptom is when there are large cystic lesions which, if deep enough can cause scarring of the skin.
There are many different creams, drugs, and therapies for skin problems. They can go from over-the- counter lotions to prescription medicines. There are also many homemade remedies that tend to work for some people. One paste includes a honey and cinnamon powder mix which you must put on the infected area every night for two week and wash it off with warm water in the morning. This supposedly will prevent acne from coming back too. The best treatment is to keep your skin as oil free and clean as possible.
If acne becomes severe then it cannot only cause physical damage but psychological damage as well. Physical damage occurs when the acne get so bad that it causes permanent scarring. Physiological damage occurs when an individual become depressed and has no self-esteem.
Acne Vulgaris is very common and affects approximately 85-100% of the population at some point in their lives.
Interesting Facts:
· Eating too much bread may trigger acne in teenagers.
· The bacteria the cause acne may protect sufferers from other infections and cancer later in life.
· Contrary to popular belief acne is not caused by dirt.
Works Cited:

"Acne Vulgaris: EMedicine Dermatology." EMedicine - Medical Reference. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
Acne Vulgaris. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Acne Vulgaris-Treatment Overview." WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
Dr.Khushnood , By. "Acne Myths and Facts." Interesting Health Articles & Facts - Enjoy Health Articles. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Health. Acne Vulgaris. Pathology, Causes, Risk Factors, Complications." Health, Beauty, Fitness and Relevant Products or Services Online. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Skin Problems & Treatments: Treatment & Care." WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.
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Skin Disorder - Crystal Glidden-hives

What is Hives?

· An outbreak of itching red bumps on the skin that form from an allergic reaction or unknown cause. Can last 2-24 or more hours of a rash in one area alone. · Several different kinds of hives: Acute urticaria, Chronic urticaria and angioedema, Physical urticaria, Dermatographism· Acute= Hives that last less than six weeks, allergy relation…common from nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries, and milk· Chronic=lasts longer than six weeks, unknown or hard to determine the cause, symptoms include muscle soreness, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea.· Physical= caused by stimulation of the skin directly. Things that cause it are sun exposure, exercise, vibration, sweating. Occurs right were the skin was touched/stimulated. Appear about an hour later.· Dermatographism= Hives that occur from stroking/scratching the skin. Can occur with other forms of Hives.How do you get Hives?:· Allergic reaction, histamine. Examples of allergic things that can cause hives: foods, stings, sunlight exposure, medicines. · Blood plasma leaks out into the vessels into the skin· Unknown causes· Genetics· viral infections· Stress, emotion· Skin products like make-up, soaps, lotions· Pressure, sun, sweating, temperatures, What are the symptoms?:· Itching, burning· Small to large red bumps or plaques that appear on the skin· can appear anywhere on the body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, or earsWhat are some treatments?:· creams and ointments, over the counter lotions to medical prescriptions· antihistamines· steroidsComplications:· May become one big rash· If histamine is released below the layers of the skin, swelling and itching become more severe or may turn into pain---turn into AngioedemaThree interesting facts about Hives:1. Tighter clothing compared to lose comfy clothes, causes hives more easily.2. Eating green leafy vegetables will lower the chance of attaining hives because they contain the plant pigment quercetin which reduces the amount of histamine produced.3. Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, the fungus Candida and a variety of bacteria are associated with hives. Cases like these must be treated.


Skin - Disorder - Melasma - Chelsea Brown

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The Pregnancy Mask
Melasma is a brown, tan, or blue-gray patchy skin discoloration. This rash occurs on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of 20-50 year old women. Over 90% of reported cases are women because the disorder is sought to be related to external hormones. People with olive or darker skin have higher statistics of reported melasma.

The cause of melasma remains unknown. Experts believe the dark patches that appear as a symptom on the skin can be triggered by several different factors. Birth control pills, pregnancy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT and progesterone), family history of melasma, race, medications for seizures, and other medications that cause the skin to be more sensitive to pigmentation after being exposed to ultraviolet light may cause this skin disorder. Melasma cases are mostly associated with estrogen and progesterone. Most melasma patients have a history of daily sun exposure.
Regular sunscreen application and fading creams treats melasma. HQ (hydroquinone) creams are the most common treatments for melasma. Esoteric, Porcelana, Obagi Clear, Glyqin, Tri-Luma, and Solaquin are common prescriptions. Two percent HQ lightens the skin and causes less severe skin irritations than higher concentrations of HQ for melasma. This cream is applied to the patches twice a day. Every morning sunscreen gets applied over the HQ cream. The epidermal treatments work the best because the pigment is closer to the surface of the skin.

In order to prevent melasma, facial sun protection and avoidance should be acted upon.


  • An estimate of 6 million women has melasma in the United States.
  • An estimate of 45-50 million women live with melasma worldwide.
  • Only one in twenty melasma cases are reported to be male.
Type of melasma
Clinical features
  • Well-defined border
  • Dark brown color
  • Appears more obvious under black light
  • Responds well to treatment
  • Ill-defined border
  • Light brown color
  • Unchanged under black light
  • Responds poorly to treatment
  • Combination of light and brown patches
  • Partial improvement with treatment

Works Cited

Google Health. A.D.A.M., 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. <>.

Montemarano, Andrew D. "Melasma: EMedicine Dermatology." EMedicine - Medical Reference. WebMD, 28 May 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <>.

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Skin Disorder - Scleroderma - Erica Sgroi

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width="276" height="228"]]external image acb1.jpg
Scleroderma Face Pictures
Scleroderma Face Pictures
Scleroderma Face Pictures
Scleroderma Face Pictures

Description of how you get the disorder- How you get this is still unknown but they know that it has to do with an overproduction of collagen. You can get this a couple of different ways. It is not directly inherited

Symptoms of the disorder- Scleroderma is the hardening of the skin. Symptoms vary from person to person. It could range from being mild to life threatening. It depends on where you get this disease, on what part of your body.


· Scleroderma is not contagious or cancerous

· You are diagnosed with it through blood tests

· Scleroderma can affect your organs just like your skin. Your organs start to harden.

Complications of the disorder- If you don’t get a mild case treated then it could end up turning into something serious. If you are misdiagnosed then the symptoms will not be treated properly and that means the damage could be permanent.

Treatments of the disorder- There is no cure to sclerodermia but there are a lot of treatments for it. In certain cases you can go on medication for the certain symptoms but certain people don't even need medication for it. Usually people can stop their treatments when their scleroderma isn't active anymore.

Statistics- about 300,000 people in the United States have scleroderma

Works cited in MLA format-

· "Scleroderma Foundation - Medical Overview of Scleroderma. What Is It?" Scleroderma Foundation - Home Page. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.

Scleroderma Face Pictures
Scleroderma Face Pictures

Skin Disorder -Herpes Simplex-Bailey Rogers

external image Herpes_Simplex%20_Labialis_1_060111.jpg

· Blisters or ulcers are found mostly on the mouth, lips and gums, or genitals
· Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or groin
· Fever blisters
· Fever – usually during first episode
· Genital lesions – The first thing you could feel is a burning or tingling sensation
· Mouth sores
You may or may not need a treatment, it all depends on how bad your case is. People who have severe or long outbreaks especially if it is the first episode, or with immune system problems, or problems that keep reoccurring will benefit from antiviral medications such as acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex).
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face. This type of herpes is the most common. HSV-1 causes cold sores in the mouth which are blister fevers, as well as sores. This type of herpes can also cause an infection leading up to the brain called meningoencephalitis. This disease is passed from person to person by infected saliva. “By adulthood, 30 - 90% of people will have antibodies to HSV-1.” Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is usually, but not always, sexually transmitted. The symptoms that occur are ulcers or sores. Or some people just don’t have symptoms at all. “Up to 30% of adults in the U.S. have antibodies against HSV-2.” The cross between the infection of type 1 and type 2 to viruses occur form infectious genital contact. It is possible to get genital herpes on your mouth and oral herpes on your genital area.
The severity of symptoms depends on where and how the virus enters the body. Except in very rare instances and in special circumstances, the disease is not life threatening, although it can be very debilitating and cause great emotional distress.

  • One out of five of the total adolescent and adult population is infected with genital herpes. 
  • About 80 percent of American adults have oral herpes (cold sores).
  • An estimated 25 percent of American adults have genital herpes.
  • Approximately two-thirds of people who acquire STDs in the United States are younger than 25.
Facts external image oral-herpes.jpg

  • Genital herpes infection also is more common among African Americans
  • The largest increase of genital herpes is among young White teenagers.
  • Genital herpes is twice as common among young adults ages 20 to 29 than it was 20 years ago
Works Cited

external image herpesSimplexVirusHSV_25654_lg.jpg
external image herpesSimplexVirusHSV_2091_lg.jpg

Skin Disorder -Athletes Foot- Chris Langner

Chris Langner
Athlete’s Foot

external image athletes-foot-picture.png
Description: Athlete's foot, or tinea pedis very common infection that is caused by a fungi. a plant-like microorganism too small to be seen by the naked eye. This fungus eats old skin cells.
When your feet are sweaty or damp they are at risk. Walking barefoot where others also walk barefoot is one way the fungus can get on your feet in the first place.
Athlete's foot gets its name because athletes often get it. The fungus grows on the warm, damp surfaces around pools, public showers, and locker rooms. People walk barefoot on these surfaces and fungus ends up on their feet. Or they might use a damp towel that has the athlete's foot fungus on it.
The infection happens if conditions are right for the fungus to grow. Dry your feet properly after swimming, showering, or bathing.
Symptoms and Complications
bumps on the feet
peeling areas, often between the toes
redness the soles of the feet
skin between the toes have an unpleasant odor raw skin
Athlete's foot may spread to other parts of your foot, including your toenails. It can also infect other parts of the body — such as the groin (commonly called jock itch)
For mild cases, your doctor may have you apply a powder that contains medicine or cream that kills fungus, which should make your feet feel better in a few days. Sometimes you'll need to use the medicine for up to a month to get rid of the athlete's foot completely.
You'll also need to keep your feet dry and keep your shoes off as much as possible because fungus can't easily grow in dry, open air.

Statistics show that almost 70 to 80 percent of the world's population has experienced athlete's foot at one point of their lives. ­

Work Cited
Location, By. "Athlete's Foot." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <'s_foot>.
Athlete's Foot Medication, Symptoms, Treatment, Home Remedy and Prevention by" Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.

external image podiatrist-brooklyn-atheletes-foot-4.jpgexternal image athletes_foot_danger_smelly.jpgexternal image athletes-foot.jpg

Skin Disorder - Cysts - Tommy Delahanty

external image cyst3.jpg
Nabothian cyst
Nabothian cyst

external image Sebaceous_cyst.jpg

Cyst (n): Closed pocket or pouch of tissue filled with air, puss, fluid or other material.
- may form within any tissue in the body
- Parasites, such as Trichinosis and Dog Tapeworm (Toxocara Canis), can form systs in muscles, liver, brain, lungs and eyes.
- most common on skin

- develop as a result of infection, clogging of sabaceous gland or around foreign materials.
- obstructions to the flow of fluid
- tumors
- chronic inflammatory conditions
- genetic conditions
- defects in developing organs in the embryo

Only preventable if underlying cause is preventable

- Palpable lumps (cysts of skin or tissues beneath skin)
- Cysts on Internal organs produce no symptoms
- undetected by victim
- often discovered by imaging studies (x-ray, ultrasound, etc)

There are hundreds of types of cysts that can show up anywhere on the body
- Ovarian Cyst: tumor that contains cysts
- Baker Cyst: behind knee
- Ganglion Cyst: joints & tendons
- Pancreatic Cyst: self explainatory

- Larger cysts may require surgical removal
- all cancerous cysts are surgically removed
- draining using a needle

- potentially cancerous
- malignant
- can be painful

Skin Disorder - Sunburn - Danielle Pawloski
sunburn-3.jpg sunburnnn.jpg

· Sunburn is literally a burn to the skin
· The burn is caused from the Ultraviolet radiation from the sun
· Light haired and fair skinned people are more vulnerable to sunburn then others

Summer Sunburn Survival Tips
· Use Sunscreen- Sunscreen should
be applied at home thirty minutes before sun exposure. You should reapply your sunscreen often while out in the sun.
· Watch the Time- You should be aware of how long you are out in the sun for. It’s also important to know when to avoid sun exposure, between 10 am and 2
pm, when the sun’s rays are the most intense.
· Wear a Hat- A hat can provide more protection from the sun then sunscreen, especially for people with sensitive skin.

Sunburn Symptoms · Mild cases of sunburn result in skin redness and irritation
· Untreated sunburn and over exposure to the sun can result in shock or in some cases death.
· More intense cases of sunburn can be very painful
· After exposure to the sun, your skin starts to turn red and become irritated within 2-6 hours. Sunburn symptoms are at the most intense within 12-24 hours after sun exposure
· More serve cases of sunburn are complicated by serve skin burning and blistering, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and infection

· Other common symptoms include chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, flulike symptoms, blistering( which may range from very small blisters, that are only found when your skin begins to “peel”, to very large water filled blisters with red, tender, and raw skin underneath, skin loss- 4-7 days after sun exposure. When to seek Medical Help
If you

· Are in extreme pain
· Have serve blistering
· Are experiencing headaches
· Are nauseous or vomiting
· Faint

· Have other medical problems


· Get out of the sun and away from the UV rays
· Aspirin or Ibuprofen can help relieve discomf ort.
· Aloe based lotions also help to relieve discomfort
· A cool bath (not ice cold) helps too. Avoid bath salts, oils and perfumes because they are irritating to the skin


Work Cited



Skin Disorder - Folliculitis - Robert S. Gomez

Yes It is in follicles!

Folliculitis happens when the follicles become infected with bacteria, fungi, or viruses. There are many variations of folliculitis such as Hot Tub Folliculitis, and barber’s itch. There is superficial Folliculitis where the infection is in the upper part of the hair follicle. There is Deep Folliculitis where the infection is deep in the hair follicle.

· Friction from shaving or tight clothing
· Excessive perspiration
· Inflammatory skin conditions, including dermatitis and acne
· Injuries to your skin, such as abrasions or surgical wounds
· Covering your skin with plastic dressings or adhesive tape
Superficial Folliculitis:
· Clusters of small red bumps that develop around hair follicles
· Pus-filled blisters that break open and crust over
· Red and inflamed skin
· Itchiness or tenderness
Deep Folliculitis:
· A large swollen bump or mass
· Pus-filled blisters that break open and crust over
· Pain
· Possible scars once the infection clears
In mild cases they are recurrent and spread infection, and contain large, itchy patches of staph infection on the skin (plaques)
In severe cases, permanent hair loss, boils, scarring, and could spread into the lymph nodes and bloodstream.

Because Folliculitis comes in many forms and variations, there are many treatments and drugs for the disease. There are antibiotics, antiseptics, antifungals, antivirals, surgery, and self-care.

Staphylococcal folliculitis: Antibiotics
Pseudomonas folliculitis (hot tub folliculitis): oral or topical medication
Barber’s Itch (Tinea barbae): oral antifungal medications
Pseudofolliculitis barbae: Self-care
Pityrosporum folliculitis: Topical or oral antifungals
Herpetic folliculitis: oral antiviral medication
Gram-negative folliculitis: antibiotics
Boils and carbuncles: Surgery
Eosinophilic folliculitis: corticosteroids

Statistics: Pseudofolliculitis and traction folliculitis are more common in African Americans
Eosinophilic folliculitis is more common in Japanese people

Interesting Facts:
The most common cause of folliculitis is from a staph infection.
Those who are obese are more likely to get it.
Overuse of acne creams can lead to folliculitis.

Work Cited

Skin - Disorder - Eczema - Erica Truong
Eczema: Not a Dry Topic
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The cause of eczema is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of dry, irritated skin together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. Stress and other emotional disorders can worsen this disorder, but they do not cause it. Eczema often occurs along with allergies and frequently runs in families in which other family members have asthma or fevers.


  • Red to brownish-gray colored patches
  • Itching, which may be severe, especially at night
  • Small, raised bumps, which may leak fluid and crust over when scratched
  • Thickened, cracked or scaly skin
  • Raw, sensitive skin from scratching
Symptoms may occur anywhere but they mostly appear on the hands, feet, elbows, knees, ankles, wrists, face, neck, and upper chest. Eczema can also affect the skin around your eyes, including your eyelids. Scratching can cause redness and swelling around the eyes. Sometimes, rubbing or scratching in this area causes patchy loss of eyebrow hair and eyelashes. Itching may be severe, and scratching the rash can make it even itchier.

Complications Includes:

  • Continuous itching and scratching may increase the intensity of the itch, possibly leading to neurodermatitis. Neurodermatitis is a condition in which an area of skin that's frequently scratched becomes thick and leathery. The patches can be raw, red or darker than the rest of your skin. Persistent scratching can also lead to permanent scars or changes in skin color.
Skin infections

  • Sometimes, scratching can break the skin and cause open sores and fissures that can become infected. A milder form of infection is impetigo, usually due to staph infection. Having eczema predisposes you to this infection.
Eye complications

  • Severe eczema can also cause eye complications, which may lead to permanent eye damage. When these complications occur, itching in and around the eyelids becomes severe. Signs and symptoms of eye complications also include eye watering and inflammation of the eyelid and the lining of the eyelid.
Treatments for eczema intend to reduce inflammation, relieve itching and prevent future flare-ups. Over-the-counter anti-itch creams, along with other self-care measures, may help control mild eczema.
Medication includes corticosteroid creams or ointments, antibiotics, oral antihistamines, oral corticosteroid, immunomodulators, and light therapy. One should identify and avoid skin irritations, avoid extreme temperatures, and using bath oils, lotions, creams, or ointments to lubricate.

Popularity of Eczema: 15 million people
The Rate of Eczema: approximately 1 in 18 / 5.51% / 15 million people in the United States.


  • Eczema is actually called atopic dermatitis.
  • Eczema is the most common form of the disease among Australians.
  • Eczema mostly appears in childhood. In fact, more than half of all eczema sufferers show signs within their first 12 months of life and 90 per cent of people develop eczema before the age of five.

Works Cited:
"Atopic Dermatitis (eczema) -" Mayo Clinic Medical Information and Tools for Healthy Living - Mayo Clinic Staff. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Facts About Eczema." Femail Magazine - Empowering Every Woman. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.
"Statistics about Eczema -" Wrong Diagnosis. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.

Skin Disorder - Poison Ivy by Rachel Rimkoski
Dont Touch the Leaves! ...Or the roots, berries, or anything else on the plant, really.
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How you get it:
The rash is caused by contact with an oil (urushiol) found in poison ivy, oak, or sumac. The oil is present in all parts of the plants, including the leaves, stems, flowers, berries, and roots. Urushiol is an allergen, so the rash is actually an allergic reaction to the oil in these plants.

· The usual symptoms of the rash are:
· Itchy skin where the plant touched your skin.
· Red streaks or general redness where the plant brushed against the skin.
· Small bumps or larger raised areas (hives).
· Blisters filled with fluid that may leak out.
· Swelling of the face, mouth, neck, genitals, or eyelids (which may prevent the eyes from opening).
· Widespread, large blisters that ooze large amounts of fluid.
· Without treatment, the rash usually lasts about 10 days to 3 weeks.
· washing the area with water immediately after contact with the plants
· use wet compresses and take cool baths
· Nonprescription antihistamines and calamine lotion also may help relieve symptoms. Moderate or severe cases of the rash may require treatment by a doctor, who may prescribe corticosteroid pills, creams, ointments, or shots (injections).

Approximately 85 percent of the population will develop an allergic reaction if exposed to urushiol oil, especially if they have a weak immune system. However, your reaction will depend on age and genetics.
Other facts:
Your risk of reacting to poison ivy, oak, or sumac and the severity of your allergic reaction depend mainly on your age and on the extent of the first contact or first few contacts with the plant. Other influences include physical activity and immune system function. Some studies show that how allergic you are to the plants may be inherited.

Works cited
Healthwise, Incorporated. "Poison Ivy, Oak, or Sumac - Symptoms, Treatment and Indentifying the Rash." WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. 17 Sept. 2009. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.

by Katie Mascaro

Ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus. Ringworm can affect skin on your body, scalp groin area, also called jock itch, or feet. Often, there are several patches of ringworm on your skin at onceSymptoms· Itchy, red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze. The patches often have sharply-defined edges. They are often redder around the outside with normal skin tone in the center. This may create the appearance of a ring. Your skin may also appear unusually dark or light.

  • When your scalp or beard is infected, you will have bald patches.
  • If nails are infected, they become discolored, thick, and even crumble
· Keep your skin clean and dry.

  • Apply over-the-counter antifungal or drying powders, lotions, or creams. Those that contain miconazole, clotrimazole, or similar ingredients are often effective.
  • Wash sheets and nightclothes every day while infected.
CausesRingworm is a common skin disorder, especially among children, but it may affect people of all ages. Although its name suggests otherwise, it is caused by a fungus, not a worm. Many bacteria and fungi live on your body. Some of these are useful to you and your body. Others can multiply rapidly and form infections. Ringworm occurs when a particular type of fungus grows and multiplies anywhere on your skin, scalp, or nails. Ringworm is contagious. It can be passed from one person to the next by direct skin-to-skin contact or by contact with contaminated items such as combs, unwashed clothing, and shower or pool surfaces. You can also catch ringworm from pets that carry the fungus. Cats are common carriers. The fungi that cause ringworm thrive in warm, moist areas. Ringworm is more likely when you have frequent wetness (such as from sweating) and minor injuries to your skin, scalp, or nails.Complications

· Spread of ringworm to other areas · Bacterial skin infections· Contact dermatitis or other skin disorders · Side effects from medications· In a list of 14 skin ailments occurring in almost 1,000,000 people up to 1927, ringworm was the ninth most common.* During 1928 and 1929 ringworm at the New York Skin & Cancer Hospital became second most common after eczema. Of 56,705 patients examined, 5,078 had ringworm. Of the 5,078, 4,328 had it on their hands or feet. Surgeon General Hugh Smith Gumming of the U. S. Public Health Service Bureau figures that half the adults in the U. S. suffer from ringworm at some time. The American Medical Association says "probably 75 or 80% of the adult population have ringworm of the feet either by clinical or by laboratory examinations.” works cited,9171,742037,00.html picture 1picture 2picture 3picture 4picture 5picture 6picture 7

Skin Disorder -Heat Rash-Joe O'Neill
Heat Rash- One Itching Topic

What Is Heat Rash?
Heat rash -- also called prickly heat or miliaria- is a common condition in which areas of the skin itch intensely and often feel prickly or sting due to overheating. Heat rash looks like tiny bumps surrounded by a zone of red skin. It usually occurs on clothed parts of the body, such as the back, abdomen, neck, upper chest, groin, or armpits and goes away on its own within a few days. In severe forms, however, heat rash can interfere with the body's heat-regulating mechanism and cause fever, heat exhaustion, and even death.
Heat rash occurs most often in hot, humid conditions. It's most common in infants. Active people, newborns in incubators, and bedridden patients with fever also are more likely to get heat rash.

What Causes Heat Rash?
Heat rash begins with excessive perspiration, usually in a hot, humid environment. The perspiration damages cells on the surface of the skin, forming a barrier and trapping sweat beneath the skin, where it builds up, causing the characteristic bumps. As the bumps burst and sweat is released, you may feel the prickly, or stinging, sensation that gives this condition its common name.

Heat Rash Symptoms
Heat rash is characterized by clusters of small red dots or pimples and itchy or prickly skin. It's also known as "prickly heat" or "miliaria" and is very common in babies and children, but adults get it, too. Symptoms are easy to recognize and usually clear up within a few days.

First step: The first step in treating heat rash is to wash the affected area with a gentle soap (for example, Dove non-soap cleanser or something similar). Next, rinse the area with water and gently pat dry with a towel. Washing several times a day and especially after exercise, prolonged walking, or heat exposure is recommended.
Remain in a cool environment and allow for adequate ventilation of the skin.

Take cool showers or baths

Rest in an air-conditioned room at 70-72 F (21-22 C). If no air conditioning is available at home, safe retreats include indoor shopping malls, grocery stores, movie theaters, hotel lobbies, ice skating rinks, bowling alleys, etc.

Avoid skin-to-skin contact by placing a clean cotton washcloth or material between skin folds like under the breasts or abdomen.
-Apply packs of ice if rash is severe or starts to spread to other areas

Heat Rash Complications
While heat rash does not lead to heat stroke, both conditions may rarely occur in the same individual. Heat rash is a very common, self-limited skin condition while heat stroke is an uncommon more serious, generalized illness. Heat stroke requires immediate medical attention. Heat stroke is particularly life-threatening in the frail, ill, and elderly.

Heat Rash Statistics
-Over 75% of all people afflicted with heat rash are obese or overweight
-The most commonly afflicted areas of heat rash are the back and neck
- The most common cause of heat rash is by UV rays from sun overexposure
- Only 1 in 10,000 people who have heat rash get heat stroke
-Heat stroke is extremely rare and is almost never seen in most cases

Works Cited

Skin Disorder -Shingles-Muhamad Chowdhury

Chicken Pox Reloaded

What is it?
Shingles is a viral infection of the neural roots caused by the Varicella zoster virus which can form rashes anywhere on one’s body.
Shingles can only be obtained after a person has chickenpox. Afterwards, the Varicella Zoster virus remains dormant and can be reawakened if a person’s nervous system weakens due to age, disease, or stress.
· Headache or sensitive to light
· Flu-like symptoms
· Itching, tingling, or pain in a certain area which will turn into a rash in a few days. Then the rash turns into a cluster of painful blisters which soon will up with fluid, crust over, and ends by healing over. Total elapsed time is 2-4 weeks.
· Dizziness
· Severe pain on area of the rash
· Blisters can get infected with bacteria causing cellulitis
· If shingles occurs on forehead or nose, a person can suffer from vision loss
· If the rashes occur on the ear or ear canal then a person can suffer from deafness and peripheral facial nerve weakness due to Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.
· Zovirax
· Valtrex
· Famvir
These medications will only help reduce the pain and itching, there is no cure for Shingles.
· 1million people in the US become infected with this disease
· 1 out of 5 people get it
· 1 out of 50 get it twice
· Most common after age 50
Interesting Facts
· A person who never had shingles and catches shingles from someone who is infected will get chicken pox instead.
· Shingles occurs generally on one side of the body.
· Shingles generally form a band or ray of blisters.
Work Cited
"NINDS Shingles Information Page." National Institute of Health 2010. Web. 27 Oct 2010.
"Shingles." Healthwise 2009. Web. 27 Oct 2010.
Söppler, Melissa. "Shingles." Medicine Net (2010): n. pag. Web. 26 Oct 2010.
"Shingles." eMedicine Health 2009. Web. 27 Oct 2010.

Skin Disorder - Lichen Planus

Some Questions and Answers about Lichen Planus

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How do you get Lichen Planus?

Noone knows where Lichen Planus comes from. It is not inherited, and it is not contagious. Most dermatologists classify Lichen Planus as an autoimmune disease.

What are the symptoms of Lichen Planus?

This disorder mostly affects the skin. The disease is classified as an autoimmune disease and this means that the where blood cell, which are used to fight germs, now attack the skin. They attack normal, relatively healthy parts of the skin like mucous membranes, hair and nails. Lichn Planus has reddish-purple, flat top bumps that appear on skin and are extremely itchy. Lichen Planus also includes an aspect called Wickham’s Striae. These are when the skin has a white, lacy appearance. These striae are found mainly on the wrists and ankles. The disease also occurs on the lower back, neck, legs, genitals, and in some rare cases the scalp and nails. On your legs, Lichen Planus is darker and there may be think patches. The rash can be very itchy and burn.

Lichen Planus in the mouth
Lichen Planus in the mouth

What are some complications of the disorder?
Lichen Planus can come back even after it has gone away. You never know when it will resurface. About 1 in 5 people will have a second attack of Lichen Planus after it seems to clear. Some cases of lichen planus may involve a separate fungal disease called candidiasis

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How can you treat Lichen Planus?
Lichen Planus of the skin usually causes few problems and needs no treatment. If there is severe itching there are medications that you can take to relieve that. These medications are use of topical corticosteroid creams, ointments, anti-inflammatory drug, and antihistamines. Many cases of LP go away without any intervention within two years.

Who gets the disorder?
~~ Skin LP affects men and women equally, but oral LP affects women twice as often as men.
~~ About one in five people who have oral LP also have skin LP.
~~ Lichen planus affects about 2% of the population,. Lichen planus usually occurs in adults with an average age of 56 years.

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Bonus Round - Three Interesting points about Lichen Planus -
1) Spicy foods, citrus juices, tomato products, caffienated drinks like coffee and cola, and crispy foods like toast and corn chips can aggravate LP especially if there are open sores in the mouth.
2) The lesions may disappear spontaneously, only to reappear after they seemingly have gone into remission.
3) A few studies have reported significant improvement in patients who have regular professional cleaning of the teeth and are conscientious with their home care. Patients have also reported fewer ulcerations and less sensitivity when they use milder toothpastes instead of tarter control products.

"Lichen Planus."

American Academy of Dermatology. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. <>.

"Lichen Planus." American Academy of Dermatology. 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <>.

"Lichen Planus: EMedicine Dermatology." EMedicine - Medical Reference. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. <>.

"Lichen Planus: EMedicine Dermatology." EMedicine - Medical Reference. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. <>.

- Sarah Murray

Scalded Skin Syndrome-The disease that makes you shed!// by Jamie Sabo

What is it?

  • Staphylococcus aureus infection that leads to widespread peeling of the skin.

How Do You Get It?

· Caused by infection with certain strands of bacteria

· They produce a poison that causes skin damage

· The damage forms blisters making the skin look burned


- Blisters

- Fever

- Skin peels off or falls away in large amounts

- Painful/ sore skin

- Redness of the skin spreads covering most of the body

- Skin slips off easily leaving red wet spots


· IV antibiotics for the staphylococcus bacteria help fight Scalded Syndrome (much fluid is lost- preventing dehydration is important)

-Oral Antibiotics


· Young infants have poor temperature control

· Severe infection of the bloodstream

· Deeper skin infections can spread

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  • Most children (62%) are younger than 2 years, and almost all (98%) are younger than 6 years.
Fun Facts:
  • Children are more at risk becasue of lack of immunity
  • Scalded skin syndrome begins with staff infection
  • People are often sent to the burn unit in hospitals for help
Works Cited:

Skin Disorder - Ingrown Toenails - Cassandra Musto

Ingrown Toenail
OUCH! It’s Ingrown
Causes of Ingrown Toenails:
Ingrown toenails may be caused by a plethora of reasons. For example, hereditary traits for the problem are common in many people. Ingrown toenails can also grown after a person receives significant trauma to their toes, such as if a heavy object was to fall onto the toe or the toe were to be stubbed. Engaging in activities such as running and kicking can also cause ingrown toenails, as there is repeated pressure on the tip of the foot. Improper tripping is another source, as well as underlying nail conditions (i.e. fungal infections, etc.). Lastly, improperly sized footwear can lead to a few ingrown toe nails.
Symptoms of Disorder:
The toe nail grows into the skin and is usually curved at the nail borders. This in turn irritates the skin, initiating pain, swelling, redness, and a throbbing feeling of warmth in the toe.
Complications that can Arise:
An ingrown toenail has the possibility of causing a break in the skin. Should a break ever occur, it is possible for bacteria to enter the area and cause an infection. Even if the nail isn’t swollen, painful, or irritated, however, it is still probable that an infection can occur as the nail continues to grow downward.
Treating a Traumatized Toenail:
-Gently Soaking the foot in water ad massaging the swollen area is known to help reduce discomfort and inflammation
-Epsom salt can be added to the water as well
-If an infection is present, an oral prescription may be taken
-Minor surgical procedure (Consists of easing the pain or removing the offending nail)
-After local anesthetic is applied, the doctor may remove part of the nail’s side border.

The Statistics:
Prevalance Rate of Ingrown nails: approx 1 in 38 or 2.60% or 7.1 million people in USA
Fun Facts!!!!!:
-After surgery, some nails may become ingrown again, requiring removal of the nail root.
-Repeated trimming does not change the way the nail grows, and can make the condition worse.
-Topical medications may mask the pain, but they don’t correct the underlying problem.

"Ingrown Toenail." Foot Health Facts - The Official Consumer Website Of: American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <>.

"Basic Summary for Ingrown Nails -" Symptoms, Diseases and Diagnosis - Web. 26 Oct. 2010.

Skin Disorder -Psoriasis-Sarah Desjardins



-It’s a common skin condition that causes rapid skin cell reproduction resulting in red, dry patches of thickened skin. Psoriasis commonly affects the skin of the elbows, knees, and scalp.
What causes Psoriasis?

-Emotional stress and trauma to dry skin
-Having a bad immune system is a key cause of psoriasis
-Injured skin and certain drugs
-Tends to run in families(genetics)


-Raised and thick skin
-Pink in color
-Dry patches, flakey skin
-Joint pain
-Nails thicken


- Itching
-Secondary skin infections
-Side effects from medicines used to treat psoriasis


-Cortisone (anti-itch) cream
-Creams or ointments that contain coal tar or anthralin
-Dandruff shampoos


-As many as 80% of people having flare-ups report a recent emotional trauma, such as a new job or the death of a loved one
- Studies show that between 10 and 30 percent of people with psoriasis also develop psoriatic arthritis.
- Psoriasis prevalence in African Americans is 1.3 percent compared to 2.5 percent of Caucasians.


-Avoid cold dry climates
-Avoid scratching and picking at skin
-Limit alcohol and smoking
-Avoid stress and anxiety

Work Cited: